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Resilience factors among adults affected by mass conflict: Recommendations for researchers


Sara Makki Alamdari ,

West Texas A&M University, US
About Sara
Dr. Makki Alamdari joined the Department of Sociology, Psychology, and Social Work in 2020. She received a Master of Social Work and a Ph.D. in Social Work from Indiana University in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Dr. Makki Alamdari is an Assistant Professor of Social Work at West Texas A&M University. Dr. Makki Alamdari’s research interests include social welfare, poverty, trauma and resilience, program evaluation, and refugee integration.
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Christine M Bishop,

Stephen F. Austin State University, US
About Christine
ORCID # 0000-0003-0543-2219
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Mahsa Makki Alamdari

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Resilience refers to the process of adapting to a crisis and bouncing back to life. Studying resilience among war-affected adult refugees and general civilians in post-conflict settings is critical, as it is directly related to their health and social inclusion. Not only is resilience helpful in preventing war-affected individuals from developing dysfunctional coping strategies or mental disorders, but it also helps them in their adaptation and (re)integration in society. The purpose of this review is to examine factors influencing the resilience process among this group. Highlighting the main findings and gaps in the existing literature, this paper provides some researchable questions and methodological recommendations. The authors review the factors across ecological levels of individual, interpersonal/community/organizational, and macro levels. At the individual level, values, beliefs, and meanings given to adversity and resilience are discussed. These cultural meanings demonstrate the strong capability of war-affected individuals. However, application of these findings in practice and research is missing. Another individual level protective factor that is reviewed is coping strategies. These strategies might be affected by the cultural and political climate of the larger society. This needs more examination in future studies. At the interpersonal level, the importance of family and friends, especially for emotional support, is frequently highlighted; however, more studies are needed to investigate social support from communities and organizations. Factors at the macro level are understudied. In a few studies in this area, these factors mainly emerge as risk factors, especially for those conflict-affected populations living in developing countries. That is, the lack of legal recognition and employment opportunities are hindering the process of adaptation after experiencing trauma. The macro level factors influencing resilience need more attention from researchers.
How to Cite: Makki Alamdari, S., Bishop, C.M. and Makki Alamdari, M., 2022. Resilience factors among adults affected by mass conflict: Recommendations for researchers. Journal of Social Inclusion, 13(1), pp.4–24.
Published on 29 Aug 2022.
Peer Reviewed


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